Saltash Turnpike Roads                                        (updated 24th Sept 2013)

This Trust was created in 1762 to turnpike the roads westwards from Plymouth and on either side of the Saltash Passage across the River Tamar. Most of the initial mileage was on the Cornwall side but new roads were later built on the Devon side.  The road was regarded as poor compared with the roads to Cremyll before turnpiking in the 18th century and continued to be poor in the 19th century.

Ref; http://plymouthdata.info/Turnpike%20roads-Saltash.htm

J House of Commons - Reports

Saltash 2 Dec 1761

Petition of Mayor, Burgesses and inhabitants of Saltash and gents travelling on the road Highway from Trerulefoot by Pole-marking over Heskin Bridge thru Tiddeford in Parish of St Germans and Landrake over Notter Bridge to Boraton Lane End in Parish of St Stephan’s next Ash, to Culver Park Gate in a Lane called Back Lane in Borough of Saltash

And from Saltash Passage thru St Stephen’s next Ash to Weston Mills in Parish of St Budeaux by Swilly in Parish of Stoke Damerell to the corner of the meadow at the east end of the bridge by the Lower Greist Mills in Borough of Plymouth

And from North Stile of Churchyard of St Stephen’s Next Ash by Cowders to the almshouse of Borough of Saltash

And from Borraton Lane end thru Carkeil in Parish of St Stephen’s next to Ash thru Fighting Cocks in Parish of Botus Fleming

Are by reason of narrowness and nature of soil are ruinous, incommodious and dangerous to travellers

 

18 Dec 1761

Mr Cleveland reported

In support Mr Robert Hicks said he knows the roads they are ruinous and that the Statute Labour is not sufficient to repair

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

6 Feb 1777 Saltash

Pet of trustees of 2 Geo III; Need to explain and amend Act

20 Feb 1777

Sir Charles Whitworth report

To prove Mr George Woodward Mallett said need amending

RA 27 Mar 1777

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List of Acts

Saltash

St Germans Saltash Plymouth

2 Geo3 c43

1762

 

Saltash

 

17 Geo3 c78

1777

 

Saltash

 

42 Geo3 c17

1802

 

Saltash

 

4 Geo4 c6

1823

 

Saltash

Deviation due to opening of Saltash Ferry

3&4 Wil4 c5

1833

 

Saltash

 

29&30 Vic c109

1866

 

Saltash

Expired

44&45 Vic c31

1881

Nov 1881

 

Saltash 1823

An Act for more effectually amending, improving, and keeping in repair, several Roads in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon, leading to the Borough of Saltash in the County of Cornwall. [24th March 1823.]

 

Saltash 1833

An Act for more effectually repairing and improving several Roads in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon, leading to the Borough of Saltash in the County of Cornwall, and for making a new Branch and Deviations of Roads to communicate therewith. [29th March 1833.]

 

And whereas parts of the said road lying between the eastern shore of the River Tamer, at a place called Saltash Passage, within that part of the parish of Saint Budeaux, which lies in the County of Cornwall, and May’s Cross in the Borough of Plymouth, in the County of Devon, are very steep and hilly, and it would be of great public benefit and Utility to avoid the said Hills, and make a new Line of Road from the present Road at .or near to Swilley in the Parish Stoke Damerell in the County of Devon, across Weston Mill Creek or Lake, to the Eastern Landing Place of the Floating Bridge across the said River Tamer at or near to Saltash Passage in the said Parish of Saint Budeaux; and also to make a new Branch Road from the Northern End of Union Terrace in Morice Town in the said Parish Stoke Damerell, across Keyham Lake to join the said last-mentioned new Line of Road at or near to the Southern Shore of Weston Mill Creek or Lake aforesaid : And whereas some Parts of the present Road lying between Trerule Foot in the Parish of Saint German’s; in the County of Cornwall and the Archway at the Head of Fore Street or High Street in the said .Borough of Saltash are very steep, hilly, and inconvenient, and it would be of great public Utility to avoid the said Hills by altering and diverting the same, and to make a new Line of Road from the Western Landing Place of the Floating Bridge across  the River Tamer, lying on the Southward of Ash Tor Rock, in the said Borough of Saltash, to the Place in the Parish of Saint Stephen’s next ash (or Saltash) where the present Turnpike Roads leading to Liskeard and Callington, both in the County of Cornwall, join, commonly called Borraton Lane End, and also a new Line of Road from a Place called Roods Gate, otherwise .Stockerton Lane End in the Parish of Saint Stephen’s next ash (or Saltash) to the River Lynher near Notter, and thence across the said River to the Village of Landrake' in the Parish of Landrake in the County of Cornwall and if the present Line of Road from the said Village of Landrake to Trerule Foot aforesaid was altered and improved so as to avoid the Hills ; and it would also be of great public Utility if other Parts of the said Roads lying between Borraton Lane End aforesaid and Notter Bridge, both in the said Parish of St Stephen’s, were altered and improved so as to avoid the Hills : And whereas it will be expedient that when the said new Line of Road commencing near the Entrance to Swilley aforesaid, and terminating at the Eastern Landing Place of the said Floating Bridge across the Tamer at Saltash Passage aforesaid, is completed, that so much of the Turnpike Road as lies between a Place called Ham Lodge, in the Tything of Weston Peverell otherwise .Pennycross, and the Lane leading from Saint Budeaux into the said Turnpike Road at or near to a Place called the Commons, in that Part of the Parish of Saint Budeaux which lies in the County of Devon, should no longer be a Turnpike Road ; and it will also be expedient that when the Diversion or new Line of Road between Rood’s Gate otherwise Stockerton Lane End aforesaid and the Village of Landrake is completed, that so much of the Turnpike Road as lies between the Village of Landrake aforesaid and the Cross Roads in the Village of Borraton in the said Parish of Saint Stephen’s next Ash (or Saltash) should no longer be a Turnpike Road ; and that when the.said new Line of Road from the said River Lynher near Notter to the said Village of Landrake is completed, that so much of the present Turnpike Road :is lies between Notter Bridge and the said Village of Landrake should no longer be a Turnpike Road ;

 

And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act, this Act shall commence, take effect, and continue and be put in execution for and during the Term herein-after mentioned, for the Purpose of more effectually amending, improving, and keeping Purposes in repair the Roads leading from the present Turnpike Road leading from Torpoint to Liskeard at or near to Trerule Foot in the Parish of Saint Germans, by Pole Markin, over Heskin Bridge, through the Villages of Tiddeford in the Parish of Saint Germans and Landrake in the Parish of Landrake, over Notter Bridge, to Borraton Lane End in the Parish of Saint Stephen's next Ash (or Saltash), and thence to the Archway at the Head of Fore Street or High Street in the said Borough of Saltash, all situate in the County of Cornwall; and from a certain Place called Saltash Passage, within that Part of the Parish of Saint Budeaux which lies in the County of Cornwall, to Weston Mill in that Part of the said Parish of Saint Budeaux which lies in the County of Devon, or the Tything of Weston Peverell otherwise Pennycross in the same County, by Swilley in the said Parish of Stoke Damerell, to May's Cross in the Borough of Plymouth in the County of Devon; and from the North Stile of the Churchyard of the said Parish of Saint Stephen's next Ash (or Saltash), by Cowders, to the Almshouse of the said Borough of Saltash.; and from Borraton Lane End aforesaid, through the Village of Carkeil within the said Parish of Saint Stephen's next Ash (or Saltash), unto a certain Place called and known by the Name of the Fighting Cocks, within the Parish of Botusfleming in the County of Cornwall; and also for making, improving, and maintaining the aforesaid new Line of Road from the present Turnpike Road at or near to the present Entrance to Swilley House in the said Parish of Stoke Damerell to and across Weston Mill Creek or Lake, to the Eastern Landing Place of the said Floating Bridge across the River Tamer at or near to Saltash Passage in that Part of the Pa­rish of Saint Budeaux which lies in the County of Cornwall; and also for making, improving, and maintaining the aforesaid new Branch Road from the Northern End of Union Terrace in Morice Town in the said-Parish of Stoke Damerell, across Keyham Lake, to join the said last-mentioned said Parish of Stoke Damerell and the said Tything of Weston Peverell otherwise Pennycross; and also for the Purpose of making, improving, widening, and maintaining the aforesaid new Lines of Road from the Western Landing Place of the Floating Bridge across the River Tamer aforesaid, lying on the Southward of Ash Torr Rock in the said Borough of Saltash, to the Place in the said Parish of Saint Stephen's next Ash (or Salash) where the present Turnpike Roads leading to Liskeard and Callington, both in the County of Cornwall, join, commonly called Borraton Lane End, and from Rood's Gate otherwise Stockerton Lane End aforesaid to the River Lynher near Notter, and across the said River, and thence to the Village of Landrake aforesaid ; and also for making, maintaining, altering, diverting, and improving the present Line of the aforesaid Roads between Borraton Lane End and Notter Bridge aforesaid, and also between the said Village of Landrake and the Turnpike Road leading from Torpoint to Liskeard at or near to Trerule Foot aforesaid.

 

Select Committee on State of Roads 1840

William Richard Berryman of Devonport (clerk to the trust) reported

There are 20 miles of road thru 9 parishes –the parish of Stoke Damerel has repaired a portion of the old turnpike road. Nothing is done by the trustees of the road, but directing the surveyor to employ 2 men to perambulate throughout the line of the road, and clear gutters, drains &c.

22 toll gates; 3 more are about to be erected

The roads are stated to be “in very bad” condition – no part under indictment for want of repair.

 

Report to Secretary of State 1866

BPP 1866 Vol 20; No. 14-.—SALTASH ROADS.

The present Local Act, of the 3rd of William IV. cap. 5., repealed the previous Act of the 4th of George IV. cap. 6., gave powers to make additional roads, and granted a new term, which would have expired at the end of last session but has been extended until the 1st day of November 1866-

 

The total length of the roads belonging to this Trust is 17 miles 6 furlongs 134 yards, of which 1 furlong 44 yards is within the borough of Plymouth, and 1 mile 2 furlongs 202 yards within the borough of Saltash. There are 10 toll-gates and 5 side-bars, of which number, 5 gates and 1 side-bar, are on the eastern or Plymouth side of the river Tamar, payment at any one thereof clears the others, and in respect of vehicles one-half also of the toll payable on the western side of the river; a similar arrangement being made for the toll-gates on the western or Saltash side of the river.

 

There are no weighing machines. The full rates of toll allowed by the Local Act are not levied, in some cases one-half, and in some cases one-third only being taken; the road is repaired by the parishes, with the exception of the bridges and embankments, which are extra-parochial; the clerk states that the estimated cost per annum of keeping the Trust roads in repair as now performed by the parishes since the Highway  Act came into operation is about £25 per mile, previously probably not more than two-thirds of that amount was expended by the surveyors of the parishes, who did as little as possible to the turnpike roads, and the latter had become very bare."

 

The mortgage debt on this Trust in 1834 was £7,672 5s., but by 1837 it had been increased to £16,209 5s., no part of which has been paid off; the present Act gave power to borrow money from the Commissioners of Public Works, but such power has not been exercised.

 

Previous to 1833 interest was paid at £4 10s. per cent., but from that year £5 per cent, has been charged, and the arrears on the 31st of December 1864 amounted to £10,531 11s. 8d.

 

The accounts show that the toll receipts have improved since 1851, which is attributed to the erection of a steam ferry bridge across the river Tamar, at Saltash Passage, in that year, thereby facilitating the communication between the counties of Devon and Cornwall, and concurrently therewith the reduction of the tolls by the Trustees, in respect particularly of vehicles crossing the river and going over the turnpike road in both counties. The funds have been expended,—in repairing the bridges and embankments ;—tradesmen's bills ;—salaries (increased in I860 to £52 per annum) ;—law charges (in 1857, taking the opinion of counsel as to the liability of the Trustees to repair fences, &c.) ;—interest of debt;—improvements (that in 1859 being the removal of an old archway);—and incidentals (under which head have been included payments for income tax, and several items which should have been entered under the head of law charges).

 

The Local Act having been inserted in the Schedule to the last annual Continuance Act, it was reported to the Home Secretary by the Clerk to the Trustees, on the 21st of October, that two-thirds of the creditors had assented to the extinguishment of the arrears of interest, and the reduction of the rate in future to £3. per cent. In reference to this communication Sir George Grey requested that, as the Local Act required the road to be repaired prior to the payment of the debt, he might be informed whether the parishes concerned were willing to continue the repair of the read, in case an arrangement should be sanctioned, and that certain other information might be furnished. No reply has been made to these inquiries, but the Trustees have proceeded with an Application to Parliament.

 

On the 1st March Sir George Grey received the following memorial from the landowners and ratepayers of the parish of St. Germans, calling his attention to the small sum the Trustees propose to lay out in the repair of the road, and to the compromise by which, to prevent opposition from the boroughs of Plymouth and Devonport, they have offered to remove some of the tollgates affecting those towns.

 

“To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, Baronet, Her Majesty's Secretary of  State for the Home Department.

The memorial of the undersigned landowners and  ratepayers of the parish of St. Germans in the county of Cornwall,

Showeth, That an Act of Parliament was passed in the 4th year of the reign of  King George IV. cap. 6-, for amending, improving, and keeping in repair several  roads in the counties of Cornwall and Devon, leading to the borough of Saltash in the county of Cornwall, and for levying tolls thereon. That the Trustees, acting by virtue of the said Act, in the year 1833 applied to Parliament for an extension of the said  Act, and the said Act was by virtue of an Act passed in the 3rd year of the reign  of His late Majesty King William IV. extended for a period of 31 years, and from  thence to the end of the then next Session of Parliament.

 That, in and by the said last-mentioned Act of Parliament, it is declared that the  tolls shall be applicable, after payment of interest on the several mortgages which had been then made and granted, in keeping the roads mentioned in the said Act in repair.  That the roads referred to in the said Acts pass through the boroughs of Plymouth,  Devonport, and Saltash, and the parishes of St. Budeaux in Devonshire, and St. Stephens, Landrake, Bolus Fleming, and St. Germans in Cornwall.

 That no part of the tolls collected on the said road is at this present, or has been since the year 1840, applied to the repairs of the said turnpike road through the parish of St. Germans, or towards lowering or improving the very steep hills between the said parish of St. Germans and Saltash ; but the same .road has been repaired and kept  in repair at the entire cost of the said parish of St. Germans, through which the said  road passes.

 That the cost to your memorialists of keeping the said roads in repair is very considerable, inasmuch as the same are very much injured by the passing of heavy waggons to and from the quays situate on the St. Germans River to places far beyond  the said parish.

 That there are about two miles of the said roadway in the said parish of St. Germans, and that there are three turnpike gates thereon, and that it is not possible for the inhabitants of the said parish to go therefrom to any of the market towns in the neighbourhood without paying high tolls to the Trustees of the said roads at two gates,  

 That the Trustees of the said turnpike road employ a surveyor, and that his salary is paid out of the tolls arising from the said roads, and that inasmuch as the repair of the said roads is superintended by the surveyor of highways of the respective parishes  through which the said road runs, such a payment out of the tolls is unnecessary, and  it is believed by your memorialists that other unnecessary charges are made out of the  said tolls.

 That the Trustees of the said roads have applied to Parliament for an Act to extend their power to collect tolls thereon for a further period of 21 years, and that  a Bill for the purpose is now before Parliament.

 That at present there are toll-gates on the said roads very near to the towns of Plymouth, Devonport, and Saltash, aforesaid, and that a considerable revenue is raised at such gates, and that your memorialists have been informed and believe that with a view to prevent opposition to the passing of the said Bill, the said Trustees have agreed to remove such toll-gates to a greater distance from Plymouth, Devonport, and Saltash to the prejudice of your memorialists.

 That your memorialists feel that they would be greatly aggrieved if the said Bill  were permitted to become law without any provision being made therein for the  appropriation of a fair and reasonable proportion of the revenue arising from the said  tolls to the repair of the said roads.

 Your memorialists therefore humbly pray, that you will use your utmost endeavours to prevent the passing of the said Bill into law, unless and until the  said Trustees Have amended the same, by making provision for the application  of a fair and reasonable sum out of the tolls referred to therein, to the repair of  the said roads,

(Signed by the Earl of St. Germans, and 44 others.)

 

List of Roads

In Cornwall

Liskeard  Road; A38 from Trerulefoot through Tiddeford and Landrake over Notter Bridge to Burraton Lane End, then B3271 through Saltash to Back Lane (about 7 miles)

St Stephen’s Road; UC road from Churchyard of St Stephen’s Next Ash to the almshouse in Saltash (about half a mile)

Botus Fleming Road; A388 from Burraton Lane End through Carkeel to Botus Fleming (about 2 miles)

 

In Devon

Plymouth Road; UC road from Saltash Passage (Riverside) through North Tamerton to Weston Mill, then as A3064 by Milehouse to Plymouth Dock (about 3 miles)

St Budeaux Road; UC road from Milehouse, through North Prospect and St Budeaux to the Passage (about 3 miles).

Devonport Road; B3396 from Camels Head, through Keyham to Devonport (about a mile).

 

Other potential road to make 17 miles

St Germans Road ; B3249 from Tideford to St Germans (about 2 miles)

 

Click here for a map of Plymouth Turnpike Roads

Click here for a map of Cornwall Turnpike Roads

Click here for a map of Devon Turnpike Roads

Click here to return to Turnpikes Home

 

     Return to Turnpikes in Cornwall general page

 


Known Tollhouses (extracts from Tollhouse National database) 15 identified from 22 reported by the Trust ( no survivors)

Road Classification Number

Route

GATE NAME

OS Grid Ref- Prefi

Easting

Northing

District

Civil Parish

Location (Name or Number)

Road or Street (see across)

Position

Evidence

Revised 24th Sept 2013

erected by (Turnpike Trust or Authority)

Bibliographic refs

B3271

Saltash to Liskeard

Almshouse

SX

4334

5878

CWCN

SALTASH

by the Union

 

 

; ; Turnpike Trust Returns 1824;

Saltash

Taylor P. (2001), "The Toll-houses of Cornwall", p74

B3271

Saltash to Liskeard

Borraton Lane End

SX

413

594

CWCN

SALTASH

Burraton

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

Taylor P. (2001), "The Toll-houses of Cornwall", p74

Saltash to Liskeard

Mora

SX

4

6

CWCN

SALTASH

 

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

A38

Saltash to Liskeard

South Pill

SW

420

595

CWCN

SALTASH

 

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

A38

Saltash to Liskeard

Heskyn Hill

SX

34

59

CWCN

ST GERMANS

nr Heskyns Mill

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

A38

Saltash to Liskeard

Tiddeford

SW

345

596

CWCN

ST GERMANS

at cross roads

Trerulefoot

 

; ; Turnpike Trust Returns 1824;

Saltash

Taylor P. (2001), "The Toll-houses of Cornwall", p73

A38

Saltash to Liskeard

Trematon

SW

40

60

CWCN

ST GERMANS

Tiddeford

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

Plymouth to St Budeaux

Badderley Lane (Bladder)

SX

5

5

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

X roads between Bladderley Lane & Pennycross

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

A3064

Stonehouse to Saltash

Keyham Bridge

SX

462

557

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

 

nr jct of turnpikes in Grove

 

; Greenwood Devon (1827); ;

Saltash

 

UC road

Stonehouse to Saltash

Little Ash

SX

438

582

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

 

Little Ash off Wolseley Road

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

A386

Plymouth to Saltash

Pennycomequick

SX

474

553

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

Alma Road jct with Saltash Road

 

pulled down ca 1924

; ; ; old Picture

Saltash

Jenkinson T. & Taylor P. (2009), "The Toll-houses of South Devon", p46

Plymouth to Saltash

Saltash Passage

SX

44

59

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

Saltash Passage, nr quarry

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

 

UC road

Plymouth to Saltash

St Budeaux

SX

447

581

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

Bull Point

Barne Road jct with Wolseley Road?

 

; ; ;

Saltash

Jenkinson T. & Taylor P. (2009), "The Toll-houses of South Devon", p44; 1871 census

UC road

Plymouth to Saltash

Union

SX

455

571

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

nr the Union Workhouse

 

 

; ; ;

Saltash

Jenkinson T. & Taylor P. (2009), "The Toll-houses of South Devon", p44; 1871 census

UC road

Plymouth to Saltash

Weston Mill

SX

458

579

DVPL

PLYMOUTH

jct with Mowhay Road

 

 

; ; Turnpike Trust Returns 1824;

Saltash

Jenkinson T. & Taylor P. (2009), "The Toll-houses of South Devon", p44

 

Known Milestones

In the Milestone Society Database, 9 are identified on A38, A388, A386 and UC roads in Cornwall, 2 on the A3064 in Devon – (based on Trust mileage, expect 20)